Application

Stainless Steel :

SS 301
An austenitic stainless steel, because of its ability to attain high strength and ductility through moderate or severe cold working, can be used for automobile trims, conveyor belts, transportation cars such as railway coaches, metal fixtures for construction purposes, roof drainage products, storm door-frames, table-ware etc.

SS 304
It is the most widely used austenitic stainless steel. It has excellent corrosion resistance and forming characteristics. Used in chemical, petro-chemical and fertiliser industries, and as equipment in dairy, food processing, pharmaceutical industries in hospitals, households as kitchen wares, sinks, cutlery, cryogenic vessels and as heat exchangers in air-conditioning, refrigeration, for machinery in paper, pulp, textile beverage sectors etc.

SS 304L
It is used in place of SS 304 for improved resistance to inter-granular corrosion. It is used for parts and structures which can not be heat treated for stress relieving after welding. Has less tendency to work harden.

SS 310S
These are austenitic types with higher Chromium and Nickel content. Because of their relatively high creep strength and mechanical properties at higher temperatures these steel find application for higher temperatures and severe service conditions. Used for air heaters, annealing boxes, ovens, carburising boxes, fire box sheets furnace linings , furnace stacks and dampers, gas turbine parts, heat exchangers kiln lining, nozzle diaphragm assemblies for turbo jet engines, oil burner parts, paper mill equipment, oil refinery equipment, recuperates etc.

SS 316

An austentic stainless steel with 2.0 to 3% Mo. which improves corrosion resistance against halogens imparts hot strength characteristics. Used for applications requiring resistance to pitting corrosion and halogen atmospheres. Typical applications : architectural trims, marine exteriors, chemical processing equipment, food processing equipment, petroleu, refining equipment, pharmaceutical equipment, photographic equipment, pulp and paper processing equipment, textile finishing equipment, pollution control etc.

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SS 316 L

Recommended in place of 316 when weld ability has to be improved.

SS 321

An austenitic stainless steel similar to SS 304 but stabilized with titanium to avoid inter-granular corrosion. Type SS 321 resists scaling and vibration fatigue. It is used for aircraft exhaust stacks and manifolds pressure vessels, large mufflers for stationary diesel engines, carburetors, expansion bellows, stack liners, fire walls, super heaters etc.

SS 409/409 M

It is the lowest alloyed straight Chromium ferrite stainless steel. It replaces carbon steels and low alloy steel where some amount of heat or corrosion resistance and higher strength is required and where appearance is secondary. It is used of fins is heater tubes, automotive exhaust systems including mufflers, resonators, silencers, pipes and emission control units, high pressure agricultural spray tanks, culverts, shipping containers, farm equipment etc.

SS 410S

SS410 is the most commonly used 12% Chromium Stainless Steel. Excellent combination of toughness and strength can be developed. It is a good choice when good formability and high strength are required and the end use demands resistance to mildly corrosive environment. It is used for furnace parts and burners operating below 650 O.C micrometer parts, tray supports, caps and vaporisers in petroleum fractionation toeres, lining for reaction chambers, coal screens filching tackles, keys , brackets, rules and tapes, wall screens, stream turbine buckets blades, bucket covers, pump parts, petro-chemical equipment, press plates, etc.

SS 420

This steel contains min 0.15% C and 12 % Cr. It can be thermally hardened to develop very high strength, extremely useful for cutlery. Other applications include vegetable choppers, scissors, shears, tweezers, hand tools, dental and surgical instruments, etc.

SS 430

SS 430 with 17% Cr. is inferior to SS 304 as regards deep durability. Though it does not have good corrosion resistance properties as the Cr-Ni steels, it is used under less severe corrosive atmospheres for chemical processing equipment, furnace parts, heat exchangers, oil burner parts, petroleum rolling equipment, pyrometers, protection tubes, recuperates, rubber plant machinery, scientific apparatus, storage vessels, tubing, television cones, electrical appliances, solar water heaters, air conditioners, kitchen ware, household appliances, decorative trims, parts for washing machines etc.

Welding
Selection of Welding Processes

General guidelines for selection of appropriate method of welding for different types of stainless steels in different thickness, keeping in view the advantages and limitations of the welding processes, are given below.

Selection of welding processes for stainless steels.

Welding Method

Recommended Thickness mm

Austenitic

Weld ability

Martens tic

Shield Metal Arc Welding

(SWAW)

>0.8

Easy to weld

Can be welded with care

Difficult to weld; Requires special care

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

(GTAW)

<3.0

Easy to weld

Can be welded with care

Can be welded with care

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

>3.0

Easy to weld

Can be welded with care

Can be welded with care

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

>6.0

Can be welded with care

Can be welded with care

Can be welded with care

Resistance Spot Welding

<3.0

Easy to weld

Easy to weld

Can be welded with care

Resistance Seam Welding

<3.0

Easy to weld

Can be welded with care

Difficult to weld; Requires special care.

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Tools and Alloy Steel :

HIGH SPEED STEEL

Lathe tools, Planer tools, Milling cutter, Cutter blades, Boring tools, Twist drills Milling knives, Reamers Tapes, Metal cutting saws, thread cutting tools, screw cutting tools, screw cutting tools, file cutters, chisel slitter drills, Hobs. A top quality steel which offers greater hardness and suitable for cutting at high speed and good wear of resistance.

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HOT WORK TOOL STEEL

9% Tungsten Hot Work Steel :
Pressure casting moulds, cores dies fornon ferrous products tools for screws products hot extrusion dies, lower dies for valve cone products for pressing dies. Hot shear blades and trimmer dies for upsetting tools used in bolt, rivet nut and in manufacturing for heading punches swaging dies.

It is suitable for oil and air hardening and it offers high hardness retention. It provides food resistance to hot wheat and heat checking.

5% Chromium Hot Work Steel
Extrusion dies, Gripper dies, Rams Drop forging dies, Pressure casting moulds for light alloys, Metal track pressure tools. High stressed internal boxes, little tube pressing mandrels. For water cooling, Die-casting tools, Punches.
It has very good high temperature characteristics and excellent toughness combined with resistively to heat checking.

NON-SHRINKING DIE STEEL
 
High Carbon High Chromium Die Steel
Thread Rolling dies, Hobs Cold extrusion tools and dies Punches Draw plates an dies, Cutters, Measuring tools Pressure casting moulds, Blanking, Reamer, Finishing rolls for tire mills, this type of moulds, Blanking, Reamer, Finishing rolls for tire mills, this type of steel has high dimensional stability with added wear resistance coupled with excellent edge holding qualities.

Oil Hardening Non Shrinking Die Steel
Blanking and stamping dies, Rotary shear blades, Thread outing tools, Milling cutters, Rear, Measuring tools, Gauging tools, Wood working tools, Braches, Chasers. Ideal type oil hardened steel, which is economical and dependable for gauging cutting and blanking tools, as well as can be relied for hardness and cutting performance.

PNEUMATIC STEEL

Hot cutting dies and punches, Hot trimming tools, Punching tools, Blanking punches, Cold shear blades, Wood working tools.
 
Hobbling tools, headers Chisels, Caulking tools, Piercing mandrels, Beams Fishplates, Grates, Beading and flanging rolls. It is a popular type of steel known for its extreme toughness and fatigue resistance. It is also recommended for intricate tools.

SHOCK RESISTING STEEL

Coining tools, e.g. mint and medallion dies, Dial plate and watch cases, dies, High-duty tools for jewelers, Grippers, Dies and punches for screws, Balls, Rivets, Wire, nails. Most eminently suited for meeting severe pressure impact and shock requiring shallow hardening grade.

STAINLESS STEEL

Magnetic Stainless Steel
Structural parts, Armatures Building fittings, Aircraft rivets, Printing machine components, Cutlery, Surgical and Dental instruments, Plastic and Bakelite dies Pump shafts, spring components for hydraulic or steam work etc. It has higher protection against corrosion.

Non Magnetic Stainless Steel
Equipments of food-stuff industry. Surgical instruments equipments for petroleum and chemical industries, Containers Cooking equipments. It is suitable recommended for handling and processing acids and it is also non rusting natured steel.

CARBON TOOL STEEL
Cutting and punching dies, Shear Blades, Hollow and massive embossing dies, Milling cutters, Scraper, Cutting tools, Twist drills Reamer, Paper knives, Woods working tools, Thread cutting tools. Chisels, Tube drawing plugs, Files letter and figure stamps. It is a general purpose tool steel with high surface hardness and core toughness which provides good resistance wear impact and shock.

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CONSTRUCTION STEEL

EN-8C rank shafts, automobile axle barns, connecting rods, lightly stressed gears. Generally used for moderately stressed parts of Motor Vehicles and general engineering works. Vehicles and general engineering works.
 
EN-9 Crank Shafts, Cylinder, Gears, Sprockets. Mainly used in machine parts which require moderate wheat resistance.
 
EN-19 Axle shafts, Crank shafts, Gears, Connecting rods, Studs, Bolts, Propeller shaft joint. Suitable for heat treated parts where high tensile and impact are required along with high endurance bending strength.
 
EN-24 Aircraft and heavy vehicle crank shafts, Connecting rods, Gear shafts, Chain parts, Clutches, Propeller shafts, Camshafts, Spindles screws, Studs, Pinions, Tappets, Boring bars. Preferred to be applied for heat treated components having large sections and subject to exacting requirements.
 
EN-30 B Application similar to EN 24 Steel.
More suitable for extra ordinary high toughness purpose.
EN-31 Ball and Roller Bearing, Spinning tools, Beading Rolls Punches and Dies. By its character this type of steel has high resisting nature against wear and can be used for components which are subjected to serve abrasion, wear or high surface loading.

EN-36 Disc wheels, Grooved Shafts, Cams, Gears, Heavy duty gears for aircraft, Heavy vehicles and automobile transmission parts, General engineering works, Universal joints. Mainly used for highly stressed machine parts which are intended for cementation for high strength and core toughness.

SPRING STEEL
EN-45 Leaf and volute springs, Road and Railway vehicle springs including helical and plate springs. This steel is capable is taking up a good hardness and possess an increased stability in tempering.
EN-47 High duty volute and leaf spring, heavy engine value springs, Helical and Torsional bar springs. It has high ratio of yield point to tensile strength and high tensional fatigue strength.

CASE HARDENING STEEL
SAE-8620
Gear, Pinions, lays shafts, Camshafts, Mining haulage suspension, Lifting gears. Generally used for parts where direct hardening is preferred. It can also be used as alternative EN-35 & EN-36A Steels.

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